At the northern end of the Upper Rhine Valley, in the Rhine knee between the cities of Worms, Mainz, Bingen and Alzey, lies Rheinhessen. It is a table and hill country surrounded by wooded low mountain ranges. In the south, it goes over into the Rhine valley. The landscape, shaped in its basic elements in the last cold period, is characterized by the change of mostly forest-free plateaus of resistant limestone and the wide valleys of the brooks and streams in soft marls divided by hills and depressions.
Surrounded by the North Palatinate mountains, Hunsrück, Taunus and Odenwald, Rheinhessen enjoys the sheltered climate of a basin. As part of the Upper Rhine lowlands it is considered one of the warming and dry islands of Germany. Overall, it is low precipitation, warm summer and winter mild. The average annual temperature is very low at 10 ° C. The average temperature of the approximately 180 days long vegetation period is 17 ° C. The average annual precipitation varies by 500 mm and fall mainly in the summer half-year. This is favorable for the viticulture, since the vines have their largest water requirement in this phase.
Rheinhessen profits particularly strongly from the protective mountain ranges in the west. The western winds with their precipitating air masses are forced by them to climb and thereby rain a part of their moisture. As a result, Rheinhessen has less cloud cover, resulting in stronger and longer sunshine as well as föhnartig elevated temperatures. The vines have a relatively long growing season available.
The favorable climate is varied by the relief. In the marginal areas, the low mountain ranges increase the annual precipitation to 600 mm. Dry islands with only 500 mm of annual precipitation lie in the lee of the east of Hunsrück, Donnersberg or the Rhine-Hessian plateaus. In some areas where such slipstream effects add up, there is less than 400 mm of precipitation. In summer the valleys are up to 1 ° C warmer, in winter the plateaus. In addition, the sun-facing west, east and especially southern slopes and the valley areas near the Rhine are a bit warmer.