Worms, Hebrew Warmaisa, was a flourishing Jewish community since the 11th century. The well preserved and restored former Jewish residential area stretches between Martin's and Judenpforte. The centre of the former Jewish quarter was and is the synagogue with its ritual bath (mikvah). The first building (oldest stone synagogue in Germany, 1034) fell victim to the crusades of the 11th/12th century. In 1174/75 a new building was erected. Burned down in the night of the pogroms in 1938, the synagogue was rebuilt in 1961 using numerous original components.
The cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz have been awarded the UNESCO World Heritage List for their ShUM sites. The term ShUM is composed of the first letters of the Hebrew city names - Schpira (Speyer), Warmaisa (Worms) and Magenza (Mainz). The three Jewish communities in the cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz formed the unique association “ShUM” in the Middle Ages. They have been referred to as such in Hebrew sources since the 12th century. The outstanding medieval community centers, monuments and cemeteries in Speyer, Worms and Mainz are innovative and exemplary. They report on Jewish identity, religion, scholarship and resilience. Of roots and ruptures, of destruction and new beginnings.