Dangerous grape vine pest, which was imported to Europe around 1860 with imported rooted vines from North America. Within two centuries, it almost completely destroyed the European vineyads. Phylloxera sucks the roots of the vines and causes them to die. In order to protect the vineyards from this pest, until today, all European vines are placed on American rootstocks, as only those are resistant to Phylloxera.
During the dormancy, in winter or in early spring, the vines are cut by hand. The ajority of the wood that grew throughout the last year is take out and only one or two of the strongest branches are left. Through proper pruning, which requires expertise and quality consciousness, the growth of the vine is steered, its age and health determined and the right balance of goodness and quantity given.
The solid residue in the pressing of fresh grapes. It is composed of grape skins, seeds and stems. From pulp, only pomace brandy (equivalent to the Italian Grappa and the French Marc) may be made, but no wine.